Note: This has been obsoleted by the move from schroot to LXD. See this post.
There is some information available on the Ubuntu developer portal on building Click applications. But this mostly covers pure QML applications or QML applications with a C++ shared library, all with the Ubuntu SDK IDE (rebranded Qt Creator).
If you care about what is happening below this level, there is not that much info available, at least not in one place. I found: